By equating moral degradation and poor housing conditions, the 19th century reformers forged a bond between humanitarianism and architecture. Today’s “voucher humanitarianism” severs this bond, by urging refugees to compete with the urban poor for affordable housing in the capitalist market. This leads to the odd phenomenon of e.g. Syrian refugees in Jordan returning to the camps as they at least provide shelter: the camp turns into a refuge from cities that do not provide affordable housing. Consequently, the refugees, by refusing to be objects of such a humanitarianism, turn to Europe itself. The solution, as Herscher concludes, is citizenship. “Refugees are citizens in the making. They are not disturbing the social order […], they are soliciting a necessary change. Without them states and institutions are fossilized artifacts.”